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HADROSAURUS

a plant-eating hadrosaurine hadrosaurid hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of the U.S.A.
Pronunciation: HAD-row-SOR-us
Meaning: Heavy lizard
Author/s: Leidy (1858)
Synonyms: None known
First Discovery: New Jersey, USA
Chart Position: 13

Hadrosaurus foulkii

Discovered by William Estaugh Hopkins whilst digging a marl pit in 1838, Hadrosaurus blazed a trail on several fronts; it was the first North American duck-billed dinosaur ever discovered, and became the first skeleton to be mounted for display in 1868. Granted, it was assembled in Joseph Leidy's kangaroo-like pose resting on its "back extremities and tail" and its head was replaced with a guesswork plaster caste by English sculptor and naturalist Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins, but its limb proportions proved that not all dinosaurs walked on four legs and New Jersey were so impressed that they named it as their official state dinosaur in 1991.

Hadrosaurus is the original hadrosaurine hadrosaurid; type specimen and thus name-bearer of the family Hadrosauridae and by extension the sub-family Hadrosaurinae. The thing is; to be a family yardstick not only must your fossils sport a set of features that unite your closest relatives but they also need to be unique enough to distinguish you from all other genera and species, but in 2006 paleontologists announced that this was where Hadrosaurus and its meagre remains failed so miserably.[ref] Later research found it to be unique afterall,[ref] but it was more primitive than the classic "hadrosaurines" which were all moved to a new sub-family; the Saurolophus-anchored Saurolophinae,[ref] leaving Hadrosaurus in the unusual position of being the only recognised member of its own sub-family, Hadrosaurinae.
(Foulke's Heavy Lizard) Etymology
Hadrosaurus is derived from the Greek "hadros" (heavy, bulky, sturdy, powerful) and "sauros" (lizard) because of its size and build; "a huge herbivorous saurian... allied to the great extinct Iguanodon".
The species epithet, foullki, is named in honor of William Parker Foulke.
Discovery
The very first fossils of Hadrosaurus were recovered from a marl pit—hand-dug by William Estaugh Hopkins—on a small tributary of the Cooper River in the Woodbury Formation of Haddonfield, New Jersey, in 1838. Rather unfairly we feel, Hopkins's neighbour—William Parker Foulke—received all of the naming glory for plucking several more remains from the same pit 20 years later. Where is the justice?
The holotype (ANSP 10005) is an almost complete left arm and leg, bits of pelvis, foot bones and twenty-eight vertebrae. Some jaw fragments and eight teeth are catalogued as ANSP 9201, ANSP 9202, ANSP 9203 and ANSP 9204.
Estimations
Timeline:
Era: Mesozoic
Epoch: Late Cretaceous
Stage: Campanian
Age range: 83-80 mya
Stats:
Est. max. length: 9 meters
Est. max. hip height: ?
Est. max. weight: 5 tons
Diet: Herbivore
References
• Leidy J. (1858) "On the bones of a huge herbivorous saurian near Haddonfield".
• Leidy J. (1858) "Hadrosaurus foulkii, a new saurian from the Cretaceous of New Jersey".
• Weishampel D.B. and White N.M. (2003) "The Dinosaur Papers (1676-1906)". /uk.
• Colbert E.H. (1984) "The Great Dinosaur Hunters and Their Discoveries". / uk.
• Prieto-Márquez A., Weishampel D.B., and Horner J.R. (2006) "The dinosaur Hadrosaurus foulkii, from the Campanian of the East Coast of North America, with a reevaluation of the genus".
• Prieto-Márquez A. (2011) "Revised diagnoses of Hadrosaurus foulkii Leidy, 1858 (the type genus and species of Hadrosauridae Cope, 1869) and Claosaurus agilis Marsh, 1872 from the Late Cretaceous of North America".
• Ostrom J.H. (1964) "The systematic position of Hadrosaurus (Ceratops) paucidens Marsh".
• Cope E.D. (1869) "Remarks on Holops brevispinus, Ornithotarsus immanis, Hadrosaurus tripos, and Polydectes biturgidus". Proceedings of the Academy of National Science, Philadelphia, v.21, p.192.
• Prieto-Márquez A. (2010) "Global phylogeny of Hadrosauridae (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) using parsimony and Bayesian methods".
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To cite this page:
Atkinson, L. "HADROSAURUS :: from DinoChecker's dinosaur archive".
›. Web access: 27th Jun 2017.
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