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MONOCLONIUS

a dubious centrosaurine ceratopside dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of North America.
Pronunciation: mon-o-KLOHN-ee-us
Meaning: Single sprout
Author/s: Cope (1876)
Synonyms: None known
First Discovery: Montana, USA
Chart Position: 28

Monoclonius crassus

Behind Agathaumas (Great wonder) and Polyonax (Master over many), Monoclonius was E.D. Cope's third crack at naming a ceratopsian and the only one worth the paper it's written on. Everyone else thinks it's highly dubious, and that its "probably" juvenile remains belong to an already-named adult, (popular choice Centrosaurus). The problem being; non-adult specimens of ceratopsian (horn faced dinosaurs) are notoriously difficult to identify at species level, even ones known from decent remains, which Monoclonius isn't.

Its holotype partial skull, complete with name-prompting teeth that most probably belong to a hadrosaur (duck-billed dinosaur) and have been carelessly misplaced, were discovered in 1876 at "the mouth of Dog Creek" in the Judith River Formation of Montana, and were excavated before tension in the area led to Custer's last stand against the Lakota-Northern Cheyenne Indians at battle of the little big horn later that year. The fact that Cope had no idea that horned dinosaurs existed until his nemesis redescribed a "Pliocene-aged bison" as Triceratops in 1889 led to lots of initial head-scratching. But since then, all and sundry busied themselves assigning copious amounts of farcically fragmentary fossils to Monoclonius with gay abandon and raising over a dozen species along the way. Today though, only the original name-bearing specimen remains, but only by the skin of its long-lost teeth.
Estimations
Timeline:
Era: Mesozoic
Epoch: Late Cretaceous
Stage: Campanian
Age range: 84-71 mya
Stats:
Est. max. length: 5.5 meters
Est. max. hip height: ?
Est. max. weight: 2 tons
Diet: Herbivore
Other species
Monoclonius recurvicornis ("recurved horn", named by Cope in 1889 for AMNH 3999 from the Judith River Beds of Montana) is a nomen dubium.
Monoclonius sphenocerus ("wedge-horned", named by Cope in 1889 for AMNH 3989, found by Sternberg in 1876 on Cow Island) is a nomen dubium.
Monoclonius fissus ("the split one", named by Cope in 1889 for AMNH 3988 from the Judith River Beds of Montana) is a nomen dubium.
Monoclonius dawsoni ("for Dawson", named by Lambe in 1902) is a subjective synonym of Centrosaurus apertus.
Monoclonius belli ("for John Bell Hatcher") was discovered by Lawrence Lambe in 1898 and named in 1902 on the assumption it was related to Cope's Monoclonius, basically because all ceratopsians discovered in the Judith River Formation were assumed to be related to Cope's Monoclonius. However, Sternberg discovered more 'Monoclonius' remains in Alberta, Canada, and Lambe renamed them, along with his original fossils, Chasmosaurus belli in 1914. But only because Protorosaurus (before Torosaurus), his first choice, was already occupied by the earliest known archosauromorph.
Monoclonius canadensis ("from Canada", named by Lambe in 1902) is now Chasmosaurus canadensis.
Monoclonius apertus (Lambe, 1904) is now classified as Centrosaurus apertus.
Monoclonius albertensis ("from Alberta", named by Lambe in 1913) is now classified as Styracosaurus albertensis.
Monoclonius flexus (Brown, 1914) is a subjective synonym of Centrosaurus apertus.
Monoclonius montanensis ("from Montana", named by Gilmore in 1914) is now known as Brachyceratops montanensis.
Monoclonius cutleri ("for Cutler", named by Brown in 1917) is a subjective synonym of Centrosaurus apertus.
Monoclonius nasicornus (Brown, 1917) is a subjective synonym of Styracosaurus albertensis.
Monoclonius longirostris (Sternberg, 1940) is a junior synonym of Centrosaurus apertus.
Monoclonius lowei (Sternberg, 1940) is a synonym of Monoclonius crassus.
Monoclonius lammersi (Dodson, 1986) is now Avaceratops lammersi (originally "lammersorum")
References
• Cope, E.D. (1876) "Descriptions of some vertebrate remains from the Fort Union Beds of Montana". Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 28: 248-261.
• Brown, B. (1914) "A complete skull of the horned dinosaur Monoclonius, from the Belly River of Alberta". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 33: 549–558.
• Brown, B. (1917) "A complete skeleton of the horned dinosaur Monoclonius, and description of a second skeleton showing skin impressions". /uk.
• Dodson, P. (1998) "Monoclonius - The First Ceratopsid" in "The Horned Dinosaurs: A Natural History". /uk
• Creisler, B.S. (September 1992) "Why Monoclonius Cope Was Not Named for Its Horn: The Etymologies of Cope's Dinosaurs". JVP, Vol. 12.
• Dodson, P. (1990) "On the status of the ceratopsids Monoclonius and Centrosaurus" in Dinosaur Systematics: Perspectives and Approaches. /uk
• Ryan, M.J. (2006) "The status of the problematic taxon Monoclonius (Ornithischia: Ceratopsidae) and the recognition of adult-sized dinosaur taxa". Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 38(4):62.
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To cite this page:
Atkinson, L. "MONOCLONIUS :: from DinoChecker's dinosaur archive".
›. Web access: 25th May 2017.
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