a plant-eating saurolophine hadrosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Canada.
Barnum Brown (1912
(Osborn's Crested Lizard)Etymology
is derived from the Greek "sauros" (lizard) and "lophos" (crested).
The species epithet
, honours Henry Fairfield Osborn.
The first remains of Saurolophus
were discovered by Barnum Brown and Peter Kaisen in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation (previously known as the Edmonton Formation), Edmonton Group, near Tolman Ferry, Red Deer River, Alberta, Canada, in 1911. The holotype
(AMNH 5220) is a nearly complete skeleton, and a skull, 100cm long.
: Late Cretaceous
: 73-66 mya
Est. max. length
: 12 meters
Est. max. hip height
: 4 meters
Est. max. weight
: 5 tons
(PIN 551/8) was discovered during 1946-49 I. A. Efremov-led Polish-Mongolian expeditions to Mongolia's Gobi Desert (Nemegt Formation) and named by Anatoly Rozhdestvensky in 1952. It is the best represented species of Saurolophus
, being known from at least 15 specimens of infants to adults, some with skin impressions, from a single bone bed that became known as “the Dragon's Tomb”. Its skull is around 20% longer than that of Saurolophus osborni
and has a more up-turned tip of the snout. Remains now known as Barsboldia
were once assigned here.
(Riabinin, 1930) is based on a fragmentary hip bone which was discovered in the Village of Jiayin, Tsagayan Group, Tsagayanskaya Svita, Heilongjiang, China. Most paleontologists consider it to be a junior synonym of Saurolophus angustirostris
though, funnily enough, it was named first.
is known from holotype
"LACM/CIT 2852", a partial skeleton and skull from the Moreno Formation in the Panoche-Tumey Hills of Fresno County, California, and referred specimen LACM/CIT 2760, a partial skeleton from the Moreno Formation in San Benito County, California, which were excavated by Chester Stock in 1939 and 1940. William J. Morris referred them to Saurolophus
sp. in 1973. However, in 2010 Bell and Evans argued that the holotype skull was no different to that of Edmontosaurus
In 2013, Prieto-Márquez and Wagner went to great lengths to prove that Morris was right in the first place and named Saurolophus morrisi
in his honor. Then they renamed it Augustynolophus
In 2015, Leonard Dewaele et al
. described perinatal specimens of Saurolophus angustirostris
, associated with eggshell fragments, likely from a riverbank nest that was carried away by flood water during the wet summer season. The skull length of these babies is around 5% that of adult S. angustirostris
specimens, making them the earliest known development stage of this giant hadrosaur.
• Barnum Brown (1912) "A crested dinosaur from the Edmonton Cretaceous
• Barnum Brown (1912) "The skeleton of Saurolophus, a crested duck-billed dinosaur from the Edmonton Cretaceous
• Anatoly Nikolaenvich Riabinin (1930) "On the age and fauna of the dinosaur beds on the Amur River". (Saurolophus kryschtofovici
• R. S. Lull and N. E. Wright (1942) "Hadrosaurian Dinosaurs of North America".
• Teresa Maryanska and Halszka Osmólska (1981) "Cranial anatomy of Saurolophus angustirostris
with comments on the Asian Hadrosauridae (Dinosauria)".
• J. R. Horner, D. B. Weishampel and C. A Forster (2004) "Hadrosauridae" in Weishampel, Dodson and Osmólska "The Dinosauria: Second Edition
• A. Prieto-Márquez and J. R. Wagner (2013) "A new species of hadrosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of the Pacific coast of North America
". (names Saurolophus morrisi
• Phil R. Bell (2011) "Cranial Osteology and Ontogeny of Saurolophus angustirostris from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia with Comments on Saurolophus osborni from Canada
• Phil R. Bell (2012) "Standardized Terminology and Potential Taxonomic Utility for Hadrosaurid Skin Impressions: A Case Study for Saurolophus from Canada and Mongolia
• Prieto-Marquez A, Wagner J.R, Bell P.R, Chiappe L.M. (2014) "The late-surviving ‘duck-billed’ dinosaur Augustynolophus
from the upper Maastrichtian of western North America and crest evolution in Saurolophini".
• Leonard Dewaele, Khishigjav Tsogtbaatar,Rinchen Barsbold, Géraldine Garcia, Koen Stein, François Escuillié and Pascal Godefroit
(2015) "Perinatal Specimens of Saurolophus angustirostris (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae), from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia
". PLoS ONE 10(10): e0138806. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138806.
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