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PACHYCEPHALOSAURUS

a plant-eating pachycephalosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of North America.
pachycephalosaurus
Pronunciation: pak-ee-SEF-a-lo-SOR-us
Meaning: Thick-headed lizard
Author/s: Brown and Schlaikjer (1943)
Synonyms: See below
First Discovery: Wyoming, USA
Chart Position: 146

Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis

(Thick-headed lizard from Wyoming)Etymology
Pachycephalosaurus is derived from the Greek "pakhys" (thick), "kephale" (head) and "sauros" (lizard) because of its immensely thick skull roof. The species epithet, wyomingensis, means "from Wyoming" in Latin.
Synonyms
Tylosteus ornatus (Leidy, 1872)
Troödon wyomingensis (Gilmore, 1931)
Pachycephalosaurus grangeri (Brown and Schlaikjer, 1943)
Pachycephalosaurus reinheimeri (Brown and Schlaikjer, 1943)
Discovery
The holotype of Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis, a partial skull (USNM 12031) which Charles W. Gilmore originally named Troödon wyomingensis, was discovered at Warren Post Office, Buck Creek, in the Lance Formation of Niobrara County, Wyoming, USA, by George F. Sternberg on August 25th, 1930.
As mentioned under "other species", remains have also been found in Montana and South Dakota.
Estimations
Timeline:
Era: Mesozoic
Epoch: Late Cretaceous
Stage: Maastrichtian
Age range: 71-66 mya
Stats:
Est. max. length: 4.5 meters
Est. max. hip height: 1.8 meters
Est. max. weight: 450 Kg
Diet: Omnivore
Other species
When Brown and Schlaikjer established Pachycephalosaurus in 1943, they coined three different species in the same paper and what we now know as the type specimen (Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis) was number two. The first, and thus genus anchor back then, was Pachycephalosaurus grangeri, based on a nearly complete skull (AMNH 1696) found by William Winkley and collected by W. H. Peck and Thomas G. Nielsen from Winkley's Ranch in the Hell Creek Formation, Powder Hill, north of Ekalaka, Carter County, Montana, in 1940, while a third species, Pachycephalosaurus reinheimeri, was based on a dome and a few associated elements (DMNH 469) found in the Lance Formation of Corson County, South Dakota, in 1922 by Philip Reinheimer who was honored in the epithet.
As it turns out, all three and their associated remains belong to a single species. But when Peter Galton formally synonymized them in 1971 he installed Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis as name-bearer because it was actually described first albeit under a different guise—Troödon wyomingensis (Gilmore, 1931)—and it's currently the only recognised species.
References
• Gilmore C.W. (1931) "A new species of troodont dinosaur from the Lance Formation of Wyoming" (names "Troödon wyomingensis").
• Brown B. and Schlaikjer E.M. (1943) "A study of the troödont dinosaurs with the description of a new genus and four new species". (assigns Troödon wyomingensis to Pachycephalosaurus).
• Galton P.M. and Sues, H-D. (1983) "New data on pachycephalosaurid dinosaurs (Reptilia: Ornithischia) from North America". (sinks P.grangeri and P.reinheimeri into P.wyomingensis).
• Baird D. (1979) "The dome-headed dinosaur TYLOSTEUS ORNATUS Leidy 1872 (Reptilia: Ornithischia: Pachycephalosauridae)".
• ICZN Opinion 1371 (April 1986) "Pachycephalosaurus Brown & Schlaikjer, 1943 and Troodon wyomingensis Gilmore, 1931 (Reptilia, Dinosauria): Conserved".
• Maryanska T., Chapman R.E. and Weishampel D.B. (2004) "Pachycephalosauria" in Weishampel, Dodson and Osmólska (eds.) "The Dinosauria: Second edition".
• Sullivan R.M. (2006) "A taxonomic review of the Pachycephalosauridae (Dinosauria: Ornithischia)".
• Naish D. (2009) "The Great Dinosaur Discoveries".
• Paul G.S. (2010) "The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs".
• Peterson J.E. and Vittore C.P. (2012) "Cranial pathologies in a specimen of Pachycephalosaurus". PLoS ONE 7 (4): e36227. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036227. PMC 3340332. PMID 22558394.
• Peterson J.E., Dischler C. and Longrich N.R. (2013) "Distributions of Cranial Pathologies Provide Evidence for Head-Butting in Dome-Headed Dinosaurs (Pachycephalosauridae)". PLoS ONE 8(7): e68620. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068620.
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To cite this page:
Atkinson, L. "PACHYCEPHALOSAURUS :: from DinoChecker's dinosaur archive".
›. Web access: 22nd Oct 2017.
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